Did you know that you can get out of the tax debt due to the misdeeds or fraud committed by your spouse?
Innocent Spouse Relief was designed to alleviate unjust situations where one spouse was clearly the
victim of fraud perpetrated by their spouse or ex-spouse.
If you qualify for Innocent Spouse Relief, you may not owe any tax.
By requesting innocent spouse relief, you can be relieved of responsibility for paying tax, interest, and
penalties if your spouse (or former spouse) improperly reported items or omitted items on your tax
return. Generally, the tax, interest, and penalties that qualify for relief can only be collected from
your spouse (or former spouse). However, you are jointly and individually responsible for any tax,
interest, and penalties that do not qualify for relief. The IRS can collect these amounts from either
you or your spouse (or former spouse). Innocent spouse relief only applies to individual income or
self-employment taxes. For example, Household Employment taxes, Individual Shared Responsibility
payments, and business taxes and trust fund recovery penalty for employment taxes are not eligible for
innocent spouse relief.
The IRS will figure the tax you are responsible for after you file Form 8857. You are not required to
figure this amount. But if you wish, you can figure it yourself. See How To Allocate the Understatement
of Tax, within Publication
You must meet all of the following conditions to qualify for innocent spouse relief.
You filed a joint return which has an understatement of tax due to erroneous items, defined below,
of your spouse (or former spouse).
You establish that at the time you signed the joint return you did not know, and had no reason to
know, that there was an understatement of tax. See Actual Knowledge or Reason to Know, defined
Taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it would be unfair to hold you liable for the
understatement of tax. See Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief, below.
You and your spouse (or former spouse) have not transferred property to one another as part of a
fraudulent scheme. A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party,
such as a creditor, ex-spouse, or business partner.
Erroneous items are either of the following.
- Unreported income. This is any gross income item received by your spouse (or former spouse)
that is not reported.
- Incorrect deduction, credit, or basis. This is any improper deduction, credit, or property
basis claimed by your spouse (or former spouse).
The following are examples of erroneous items.
The expense for which the deduction is taken was never paid or incurred. For example, your spouse, a
cash-basis taxpayer, deducted $10,000 of advertising expenses on Schedule C of your joint Form 1040,
but never paid for any advertising.
The expense does not qualify as a deductible expense. For example, your spouse claimed a business
fee deduction of $10,000 that was for the payment of state fines. Fines are not deductible.
No factual argument can be made to support the deductibility of the expense. For example, your
spouse claimed $4,000 for security costs related to a home office, which were actually veterinary
and food costs for your family's two dogs.
Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know
You knew or had reason to know of an understatement if:
- You actually knew of the understatement, or
- A reasonable person in similar circumstances would have known of the understatement.
If you actually knew about an erroneous item that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse), the relief
discussed here does not apply to any part of the understatement of tax due to that item. You and your
spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly liable for that part of the understatement. For information
about the criteria for determining whether you actually knew about an erroneous item, refer to Relief from Separation of Liability for more
information about Actual Knowledge.
Reason to Know
If you had reason to know about an erroneous item that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse), the
relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understatement of tax due to that item. You and
your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly liable for that part of the understatement.
The IRS will consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether you had reason to know of an
understatement of tax due to an erroneous item. The facts and circumstances include:
- The nature of the erroneous item and the amount of the erroneous item relative to other items.
- The financial situation of you and your spouse (or former spouse).
- Your educational background and business experience.
- The extent of your participation in the activity that resulted in the erroneous item.
Whether you failed to ask, at or before the time the return was signed, about items on the return or
omitted from the return that a reasonable person would question.
Whether the erroneous item represented a departure from a recurring pattern reflected in prior
years' returns (for example, omitted income from an investment regularly reported on prior years'
Partial Relief When Portion of Erroneous Item is Unknown
You may qualify for partial relief if, at the time you filed your return, you had no knowledge or reason
to know of only a portion of an erroneous item. You will be relieved of the understatement due to that
portion of the item if all other requirements are met for that portion.
If at the time you signed your joint return, you knew that your spouse did not report $5,000 of gambling
winnings. The IRS examined your tax return several months after you filed it and determined that your
spouse's unreported gambling winnings were actually $25,000. You established that you did not know
about, and had no reason to know about, the additional $20,000 because of the way your spouse handled
gambling winnings. The understatement of tax due to the $20,000 will qualify for innocent spouse relief
if you meet the other requirements. The understatement of tax due to the $5,000 of gambling winnings
will not qualify for relief.
Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief
The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances of the case in order to determine whether it is
unfair to hold you responsible for the understatement.
The following are examples of factors the IRS will consider.
Whether you received a significant benefit (defined next), either directly or indirectly, from the
- Whether your spouse (or former spouse) deserted you.
- Whether you and your spouse have been divorced or separated.
- Whether you received a benefit on the return from the understatement.
Refer to Factors for Determining Whether to Grant Equitable Relief on the Equitable Relief page for other factors.
A significant benefit is any benefit in excess of normal support. Normal support depends on your
particular circumstances. Evidence of a direct or indirect benefit may consist of transfers of property
or rights to property, including transfers that may be received several years after the year of the
You receive money from your spouse that is beyond normal support. The money can be traced to your
spouse's lottery winnings that were not reported on your joint return. You will be considered to have
received a significant benefit from that income. This is true even if your spouse gives you the money
several years after he or she received it.